Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems.
Biodiversity is usually explored at three levels – genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity. These three levels work together to create the complexity of life on Earth.
Genetic diversity is the variety of genes within a species. Each species is made up of individuals that have their own particular genetic composition.
Species diversity is the variety of species within a habitat or a region.Species are grouped together into families according to shared characteristics.
Ecosystem diversity is the variety of ecosystems in a given place. An ecosystem is a community of organisms and their physical environment interacting together.
Biodiversity is of great importance in order to maintain stable ecosystems. The destruction of rainforest causes erosion, loss of valuable species and changes in climate.With more plants, trees and animals the soils improved and became stronger – less prone to erosion, drought and flooding.The major causes of biodiversity decline are land use changes, pollution, changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, changes in the nitrogen cycle and acid rain, climate alterations, and the introduction of exotic species, all coincident to human population growth.
Main Threats to Biodiversity –
- Human Activities and Loss of Habitat
- Marine Environment
- Increasing Wildlife Trade
- Climate Change